Italian, Spanish and French armors in the State Hermitage Museum (Saint Petersburg, 2015)

The State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation) has a collection of beautiful armor pieces from France, Italy and Spain which will be shown here.  These are made by famed armorers of the period such as Petit, Lucio Piccinino, Filippo Negroli and Giovanny Battista Serabalio. Some of them will be shown in the following:

ITALY

A Venetian shield from North Italy from 1480-1490.

An Italian full-plate armor (1550-1560)

A sallet helmet from North Italy (Venetian?) from the late XV century.  Note that sallet (also called celata, salade and schaller) was a war helmet that substituted the bascinet in the areas such as Italy, western and northern Europe and Hungary during the mid-15th century.  Another helmet known as armet helmet was also used and popular in Italy, France and England.  However, in Germany the sallet helmet became the most universal type.

A Milanese sallet (Italy) from the late 15th century. The origin of the term sallet could be realted to Italy as the term celata is first recorded in an inventory of the arms and armour of the Gonzaga family dated to 1407 see Oakeshott (1980, p. 109, European Weapons and Armour: From the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution). The earliest sallets were a variant of the bascinet which were meant to be worn without an aventail or visor.  As this had left vital areas of the head and face exposed to blows, one had to increase protection to the face and neck by placing forward the sides of the helmet at the bottom to cover the cheeks and chin and curving out the rear into a flange to protect the neck.

A Genoese parade shield from Italy made in the late 14th to the early 15th century.

A Milanese or Brescian half armor made during the first half of the 17th century.

A Milanese or Brescian steel shield made during the first half of the 17th century.

A Milanese or Brescian morion from the 16th century

For a similar Milanese morion helmet which is kept in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Dresden see Schöbel, Johannes (1975, p.56), Prunkwaffen: Waffen und Rüstungen aus dem historischen Museum Dresden. Leipzig: Militärverlag. Schöbel (1975, p. 56) describes the helmet as one made by Lucio Piccinino in 1567.  the surface of both helmets are beautifully engarved and heavily gilded.

A Milanese breastplate made by Lucio Piccinino (1590-1585)

A Milanese steel shield made by Lucio Piccinino (1570-1580)

For a very similar shield made by the same maker which is kept in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Dresden see Schöbel, Johannes (1975, p. 57), Prunkwaffen: Waffen und Rüstungen aus dem historischen Museum Dresden. Leipzig: Militärverlag.  Both shields are beautifully engraved and heavily gilded.

A Milanese vambrace probably made by Lucio Piccinino (1570-1580)

A Milanese half-armor made for a boy (1570-1580).

For asimilar Italian armor which is kept in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Dresden see Schöbel, Johannes (1975, p. 43), Prunkwaffen: Waffen und Rüstungen aus dem historischen Museum Dresden. Leipzig: Militärverlag. The surface of the armor in Dresden is engraved and etched.

A Milanese burgonet helmet made by Negroli (1560-1570)

Stone (1999, p. 156) describes burgonet in his book A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armour in all Countries and in all Times as:

"The burgonet or burginet is an open helmet, the salient parts of which are the umbril, or brim, projecting over the eyes and the neck. As the name implies it is of Burgundian origin and was used in the 16th century. Many are elaborately decorated."

For a similar Italian helmet which is kept in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Dresden see Schöbel, Johannes (1975, p. 59), Prunkwaffen: Waffen und Rüstungen aus dem historischen Museum Dresden. Leipzig: Militärverlag. 

From left to right:

1) A Milanese burgonet helmet made by Giovanny Battista Serabalio (1550-1560)

2) A Milanese burgonet helmet probably made by Filippo Negroli (C. 1529)

3) 2) A Milanese burgonet helmet made probably by Filippo Negroli (1530-1540)

A Milanese mitten gauntlet (circa 1530-1540)

A Milanese breastplate from the second half of the 15th century

A Milanese steel shield made by Negroli (1560-1570)

A Milanese close helmet (1530-1550)

A Milanese half-armor (1570-1575)

A Milanese breastplate (1530-1550)

A Milanese full-plate armor (1560-1565)

A Venetian rondache made in 1560

A Venetian burgonet helmet from 1560

A Venetian vambrace from 1560

SPAIN

A fencing shield from Spain from the first half of the 16th century

A sallet *helmet from Catalayud (Spain) from the early 16th century

Stone (1999, p. 536) describes salett or sallet in his book A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armour in all Countries and in all Times as:

"SALADE, CELATA, SALET, SALETT. Very popular headpieces of the 15th century which were apparently evolved from the war hat.  Two entirely different types of helmet are usually included when these names are used.  The German type (salade) comes close to the head in front and at the sides and extends backwards in a broad tail that is often very long. It covers the entire face of the wearer, and soometimes has a moveable visor. In others there is merely a slit across the front through which the wearer could see."

A steel shield from Catalayud (Spain) from the early 16th century

Pair of steel gauntlets for a boy from a Pamplone from 1610-1615

A fencing shield from Spain from 16th century

FRANCE

A French shield made of steel from 1540-1550.

A closed helmet made of steel by Petit in 1615-1620.

 

Dr. Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani