Jewels and Patterned Crucible Steel: Books of Jewels, Stones, and Metals

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Jewels and Patterned Crucible Steel: Books of Jewels, Stones, and Metals (published 2021)
The present book is a translation and annotation of a copy of the Persian book Goharnāmeh [Book of Jewels] written by Mohammad ben Mansur. The manuscript has 110 sheets and each page consists of 19 lines. The manuscript is written in Persian in naste’aliq script. Mohammad ben Mansur wrote the manuscript Goharnāmeh for the ruler Uzun Hasan Āq Qoyonlu in the 9th-century hijra (15th century CE), mentioning the name of the son of Sultan Ozun Hasan Āq Qoyonlu, namely Sultan Xalil as well. In the first section of his book, Ben Mansur talks about different types of stones. This part consists of twenty-one parts. In the second section of his book, Ben Mansur explains different types of metals. The present book clearly shows that patterned crucible steel was considered a gohar (jewel) in Persian.

The book consists of the following parts;

1. Introduction: This part provides the historical background of the manuscript, its author, and the topics of the manuscript. 

2. Goharnāmeh [Book of Jewels] by Mohammad ben Mansur: This part provides a detailed analysis and comparison of similar books of jewels and gems in Persian and places it in its historical context.

3. Mines and farms/fisheries: This part talks about the geographical locations of mines and pearl fisheries as described in the Goharnāmeh, and interestingly, it measures all these locations from the Persian Gulf, Sri Lanka, Egypt, and other locations in comparison to the geographical location of Canary Islands.

4. Classification of stones and animal products: This section describes all precious stones, semi-precious stones, and other stones, animal products, and metals as described in the book Goharnāmeh, and compares its descriptions to the modern geological and scientific descriptions of these items. 

  • The precious, semi-precious stones, and other stones include: yāqut (ruby, oriental topaz, white sapphire, pleonaste, oriental emerald, sapphire); emerald; peridot; diamond; chrysoberyl cat’s eye; spinel (shades of red, garnet red, yellow, blue, green, brown, orange and black); turquoise (green and blue); chalcedony (agate and carnelian,  blue chalcedony and other colors); precious stones resembling yāqut (zircon, garnet, and bādehenj); onyx; magnet; corundite (emery); malachite; lapis lazuli; jade; rock crystal; amethyst; jetstone; rain stone; jaundice stone; limestone; olive stone; eaglestone; blood stone; milk stone; mouse stone; moonstone; color stone; sleep stone; miskal stone; marcasite; manganese; and surmah.
  • The animal products/stones include: pearl; bezoar stones; and lapis judaicus.

5. Classification of metals: This part provides detailed information on metals and their alloys.  Among them it provides information on different types of patterned crucible steel. It also talks about xārčini that was used to make weapons.

  • The metals include: gold; silver; iron (steel); xārčini; brass; zinc; bronze; and metal alloys.

6. Translation and annotation of Goharnāmeh: This part provides a complete translation and annotation of the whole Goharnāmeh.

7. Conclusion: In this part, the book provides a conclusion and discusses the areas for further future research. 

8. References 

9. Further readings 

Catalog

The catalog provides detailed analysis and measurements of exceptional pieces of arms and armor, such Sassanid sword, different Persian shamshir (one with a karabela hilt), a Persian khanjar dagger with a carved walrus ivory hilt, Persian separ (shield) and a chiseled kolāhxud (helmet), an Indian Sossun Pata, different Indian tulwar, an Indian saber, an Indian court dagger with a jade handle and scabbard fittings of solid gold, Indian kārud with a rock crystal handle, different Ottoman kılıç (pala) and šimšir sabers, and a Hungarian saber with a Persian blade.

Additional information

Weight2 kg
Dimensions31 × 22 × 3 cm

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